Chronic Kidney Disease (CKD)

Chronic Kidney Disease (CKD)

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CKD is a condition in which the kidney progressively loses its function over time. kidney disease should have been present for at least three months to be called CKD-Chronic Kidney Disease. The kidneys are used to filter waste and excess fluid from the blood through the process of urination. The advanced stage of chronic kidney disease can lead to dangerous levels of fluid, electrolytes, and wastes to build up in the body.

During the initial stages, the signs or symptoms of chronic kidney disease may not become apparent until the kidney function gets significantly impaired. Treatment for this disease is mostly focussed on slowing the progression of kidney damage by controlling the underlying cause for the same.

Detection of CKD

CKD is detected with the blood and urine test to access kidney function.

It has five stages as explained in the following table. All stages’ duration depends upon the health of the kidneys, which again depend upon the treatment given, and diet. At times dialysis is also recommended by the doctor.


Stage GFR(ml/min/1.73m2) Health Of Kidneys
    1     ≥90 kidneys function normally, but the first signs of kidney disease appear
    2     60-89 kidney function is slightly reduced
  3A/3B    45-59 (3A) and 30-44        (3B) kidney function is noticeably reduced
   4      15-29 kidney function is extremely reduced
   5      <15 ESRD, which is also known as End Stage renal failure

End-Stage Kidney Disease

Also known as CKD Stage V. This is the last stage of chronic kidney disease. This is that time when kidney function reduces to the extent that dialysis or a kidney transplant is required.

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Causes of Kidney Diseases

Diabetes and High blood pressure are the most common reasons and people with these two are at the risk of kidney disease. There are several other reasons such as intake of painkillers or other medicines, recurrent urinary tract infection, renal stone disease, etc.

Symptoms of Kidney Dieases

  • Blood in the urine
  • Foamy urine
  • Weakness, tiredness
  • Puffiness around eyes
  • Swelling in certain parts of the body like ankles and feet
  • Insomnia
  • Loss of appetite
  • Cramp
  • Abnormally dark or light skin
  • Nail changes
  • Bone pain
  • Problems concentrating, confusion
  • Numbness in the hands, feet, or other areas
  • cramps or muscle twitching
  • Breath odor
  • Easy bruising, nosebleeds, or blood in the stool
  • Excessive thirst
  • Problems with sexual function
  • Menstrual periods stop (amenorrhea)
  • Sleep problems
  • Vomiting, often in the morning
Dialysis Services

Dialysis is the process that purifies the blood of the body. Doctors recommend Dialysis to patients whose kidney function is less than 10-15%. Dialysis is of two types: -Haemodialysis and Peritoneal Dialysis

Haemodialysis Services

In this blood from the body is pumped through a machine. It has a dialyzer also called an artificial kidney. It functions the same as the kidney in removing waste from the body. The purified blood returns to the body via tubes. At any time only a small amount of blood stays out in the machine for filtration.

Renal Biopsy Services

Reasons for doing this procedure include blood or protein in your urine. The procedure helps to make a more accurate diagnosis, which will help determine the proper treatment.

Chronic Kidney Disease Services

CKD is a condition in which the kidney progressively loses its functions over some time. As per a study, kidney diseases should have been present for at least three months to be called CKD-Chronic Kidney Disease

kidney Transplant Services

Kidney Transplantation is the process of transferring a healthy kidney into a patient who has end-stage kidney disease or CKD Stage V. For this a kidney donor is required and is selected based on various parameters.